The system consisting of pipes with nozzles or nozzles that spray water on the soil in the form of fine droplets under a certain pressure, in the form of rain, is called the Sprinkler Irrigation Method.
It is not efficient to apply the surface irrigation method (overflow irrigation) on lands with uneven surface, high slope and high infiltration (irrigation rate).
Again, in soils with a high water intake rate, surface irrigation (overflow irrigation) is not economical due to the decrease in flow time.
In addition, it is known by everyone that in today's conditions, the amount of water in our underground resources decreases, the seasonal precipitation is not sufficient and the water that is endangered by the effect of global warming, we need to use economically and efficiently. Considering some situations like this and due to the many advantages it provides, the Sprinkler irrigation method has found a lot of application, especially in developed countries.
In the sprinkler irrigation method, the irrigation water, which is given to the air under pressure from the sprinkler heads placed on the land at certain intervals, falls on the land here and enters the soil by infiltration and is stored in the plant root zone. This water application method is called the sprinkler method because it resembles natural precipitation.
The sprinkler system can be used in all climatic conditions suitable for irrigated agriculture and in all kinds of soil suitable for agriculture and in topography conditions unsuitable for surface irrigation. However, precipitation rate value should be determined carefully in heavy textured (clay) soils. In other words, the precipitation rate should not be more than the water intake rate of the soil. In addition, this method can be used for almost all plants. If the appropriate head type, head and lateral spacing are selected, irrigation efficiency and irrigation uniformity are high.
In order for the water to be supplied under pressure from the nozzles, there must be a pressurized piping system and the operating pressure must be provided either by the pump unit or by gravity in the form of high water source.
Irrigation water is brought to the field with a closed pipe system and applied under a certain pressure with single or double nozzle heads on the irrigation pipes (lateral) placed at regular intervals in the parcel to be irrigated.
Sprinkler irrigation systems can be operated half or fully.